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JPLOBA  INDICA.                                             55
and luridum are all extensively used as Bikh, and are indiscriminately called by that
name throughout the Himalaya. We have not delected any characters by which
the dried roots of these species can be specifically recognized, noR do we believe that
any such exist. Their form and size seem to depend on local circumstances, and
their colour on the mode of drying. With regard to native information, upon
which so much stress is laid, our experience has proved it to be utterly worthless so
far as regards the discrimination of the species" of Aconite; even the most intelligent
hill-men have no exact knowledge on the subject.
1. A. Lycoctonum (L. Sp. 753); foliis palmatis, racemis laxis
paniculatis, floribus violaceis vel ochroleucis, casside conica vel cylin-
dracea, petalorum ungue recto filiformi, calcare elongate cylindrico un-
cinato vel contorto, folliculis 3 divaricatis, seminibus transversim pli-
cato-rugosis.—DC. Prod. i. 57; Ledeb. M. ROM. i. 66. A. laeve,
Eoyle! III. 56.
HAS. In Himalaya occidental! temperata, alt. 7^-10,000 pedL: Kash-
mir ! Cbamba! Kanawer 1 Kumaon!—(3?1. Aug. Sept.) (r. t?.)
'DisTBiB. Europa! (exel. Britannia); Asia temperata!
Herba elata, foliosa, ssepius glabra, sed interdum pubescens vel etiam tomentosa,
paniculatim ramosa. - Folia diam. 6-10-poll., rotundato-reniformia, ultra medium pal-
matim 7-9-fida, lobis cuneato-ovatis tnlobis et argute incisis; superiors sessUia,
5-3-partita, segmentis oblongis grosse incisis vel in.divisis. Racemi elougafci, axillares,
L -ales et terminales, puberuli vel tomentosi; bracteis lineari-lanceolatis minutis.
Flores flavidi, ochroleuci vel pallide violacei, magnitudine valde varii> pubernli. Cassis
dorso cyHndracea vel subconica, antice in rostrum breve porrecta. Petala longe un-
guiculata, ungue filiformi erecto, apice^ in saccum dilatatoj calcare cylindrico recurvo
uncinato vel subcontorto apice obtuso][ labello oblongo emarginato. Ovaria 3, g3a-
bra vel pubescentia. Follicttfi ^-f-poll.
A weU marked and widely diffused species^-varying much in the size and shape of
the helmet, and in the degree of curvature of the spur of the petals, which is either
at once abruptly reflexed and convolute, or straight with1 a recurved tip. The latter
shape is that assigned by authors to JL, orientate, Miller, or A. ochroleucum, Willd.,
while the former is ascribed to the true A. bycoctonum. In both, we find the shape
of the spur very variable, as also in the Indian plant, which is identical in general
appearance with the northern forms of A, Lycoctonum, except that it is usually
somewhat smaller-flowered.
2. A* luridum (H.f. ot T.); foliis paJmatim 5-fidis, racemo laxius-
culo simplici, floribus sordide mbicimdis, casside postice gibbosa herai-
spliserica antice late et obtuse rostrata, petalorum ungue erecto bren
lato, cucullo horizontal! maximo, calcare brevi lato obtusissimo, folli-
culis 3-5 erectis, seminibus triquetris Isevibus.
BliB. In Sikkim interiori, alt. 14,000 ped.! (ad Taiikra et Chola).—
(Fl. Aug.) («?. t?.)
Sadix fusiformis. Caulis erectns, 2-3-pedalis, paucifoliatus, puberulus. Folia ra»
dicalia longe petiolata, pet fere pedalibus, utrinque adpresse puberula, ultra medium
5-fida, lobis cuneato-ovatis grosse crenato-dentatis; caultna 6-3-partita, argute in-
ciso-dentata; jloralia bractet&formia, tridentata, lan.ceolata vel linearia. Eacemus
simplex, ^-1-pedalis. Pedicelli bracteis et floribus pleriimqiie breviores, inferiorea''
iaterdum remoti, elongati, 2-3-bracteolati. Sepala frtlvo-tomentosa. Cassis long.
| poll., gibbcre $ poll, alto fere hemisphccrico. Petala ungue erecto \ poll. lato ca-
naliculalo, labeUo apiccm versus porrecto, emarginato. Ovaria glabra vel pilosa.
This species is very distinct from any hitherto described in the form of the hel-